Sleep and Dreams, Hypnosis, Drugs and Consciousness

Sleep and Dreams, Hypnosis, Drugs and Consciousness

camouflage-1297384_1280Tuesday Night Lecture – I was going to record the lecture but turns out I have no voice left with this cold.  Therefore, I will ask that you write down the following points on your ppt notes that are attached to the sleep lab!  Also, watch Crash Course on Altered States.


Why do we dream?

  1.  Freud’s Theory- (wish fulfillment) dreams are time for the id to express itself; they reflect our innermost desires that are too threatening to express directly.  Thus, dreams have manifest content (the literal narrative) and latent content (the underlying meaning)
  2.  Information processing – dreams facilitate memory by rehearsing important events; dreams are bizarre because we incorporate other memories into them.
  3.  Activation-Synthesis theory – the brain periodic “exercises” during the night by sending random electrical impulses; dreams are the brain’s interpretation of its own activity


  1.  an interaction in which on person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, etc will occur spontaneously.
  2. Theories of Hypnosis
    1. Social Influence Theory:  Hypnosis an extension of everyday social behavior
    2. Divided consciousness Theory:  hypnosis is a dissociation between our conscious awareness and our automatic behaviors.

Drugs and Consciousness

  1.  Psychoactive Drugs – chemicals that alter perceptions and mood
  2. Tolerance- user requires a larger amount to get same effects
  3. Withdrawal – user experiences discomfort when discontinuing use
    1. Physical pain
    2. Psychological – cravings
  4. Myths
    1. Most people do NOT become addicted when using drugs medicinally
    2. People are equally as likely to overcome addiction by themselves as when they seek therapy
  5. Psychoactive Drugs
    1. Depressants
    2. Stimulants
    3. Hallucinogen
  6. Influences of Drug Use
    1. Negative correlation between drug education and use
    2. Evidence for biological predisposition for alcohol dependence
    3. Use correlated send of meaningless, stress, failure and depression
    4. Peer pressure – most likely to use if you believe friends use

Near Death Experience

  1. 30-40% of those had came close to death report NDE
  2. Commonalities: replay of old memories, out of body sensation, lights, tunnels
  3. Similar reports by
    1. uses of hallucinogens
    2. patients with temporal lobe seizures
    3. people experience prolonged isolation or cold and
    4. those suffering oxygen deprivation
  4. Those who have done hallucinogens and had NDE claimed they are different.

Crash Course:  Please listen and take notes (use your powerpoint notes that I attached to the sleepy lab to jot notes down with)

Over the break please make sure you have completed:

a)  Sleep Lab- Post results etc.. on the BLOG

b) Ice Cube Lab – Post results on the BLOG

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