IF YOU LEARN ONLY EIGHT THINGS IN THIS CHAPTER….
- Observation is the most important aspect of psychological research
- Operationalism means to define our variables in the manner in which we are going to measure them
- Correlation measures degree of relationship between variables and ranges from -1 to +1.
- Correlation does not imply causation
- The difference between an independent and dependent variable
- Confounding variables
- What descriptive and inferential statistics tell us about the results of a study
- The role of ethics in psychological research
Standard Deviation is the amount, on average, that each score differs from the mean. Thus, the standard deviation tells us about how much each score is different from the average score. The bigger the standard deviation, the more spread out the scores are.
Normal Curve: See my notes on how the curve is divided out. We know, for example, that if we select randomly from a curve, we’ll most likely get a score that falls between -1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean. Essentially, we can predict there is a 68% chance we will get a score from the section of the curve. Please refer to page 40 (fig2.10) Know the Normal Curve! Make sure you know these percentages.
Illusory Correlation: Random events that we notice and falsely assume are related.
Range- the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Double-Blind procedure- neither the participants nor the research assistants collecting the data will know which group is receiving treatment
http://study.com/academy/lesson/false-consensus-effect-definition-example.html- False consensus effect
- If Sarah scored 1 standard deviation above the average, 15% percentage of the population scored higher than she did. (answer: Here you have to know that between the mean and 1 standard deviation from the mean is 34 percent of the scores. So roughly 84-85 percent of the scores are below that;therefore, 15% or so are above that.)
- Assume you take the SAT and score 2 standard deviations above the average. You scored better than 95% of the population (answer is 95%. You have to know that area under the bell curve and that about 13.59 percent of scores fall between 1 and 2 standard deviations from the mean)
Homework: Please study for Friday’s test on research methods. Use your notes and study guide to help you. Additional sources can be found here:
Zimbardo activity: Due next Tuesday on your BLOG. Thanks
Next unit NEUROSCIENCE (THE BRAIN)